Are the basic units of matter (about 10-billionth of a meter) and the defining structure of elements, which can join to form molecules, that form most objects.
These basic building units are composed of particles called protons (have a positive electric charge), neutrons (which have no charge) and electrons (have a negative electric charge).
Every atom is composed of a nucleus made of 1 or more protons and typically a similar number of neutrons and 1 or more electrons bound to the nucleus.
The protons and neutrons are heavier and stay in the nucleus, which are called nucleons. More than 99% of an atoms mass is in the nucleus.
About 65% of the Earth's mantle by volume is made up of igneous rocks like Granite, Lava and Pumice. Igneous rocks form by cooling and the solidifying of lava or magma. Ignis - is from the Latin word meaning fire. Over 700 types of igneous rocks have been identified.
About 8% of the Earth’s mantle by volume is made up of sedimentary rocks such as shale, limestone and sandstone. Sedimentary rocks are formed from fragments of pre-existing minerals, rock or organic particles within bodies of water or at near the Earth's surface that subside out of the fluid in which they are contained.
Metamorphic rocks make up about 28% of the Planet’s mantle by volume with rocks such as jade, schist, marble, soapstone, slate and quartzite. Metamorphic rocks are formed by subjecting any type of rock like igneous rock, sedimentary rock or another older metamorphic rock to different pressure and temperature conditions that change the chemistry and physical properties of the rock. The process is called metamorphism, to change in form.
Cumulus clouds basic forms can show free-convective upward growth - Latin - means "heap"
Cirrus clouds take the form of thin fibrous wisps - Latin - means "curl"
Stratus clouds appear in non-convective layered sheets - Latin - means "blanket"